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Author: ashelley

PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM

PHILOSOPHY OF FREEDOM

The Great Reform Act of 1832 brought enormous change to the hitherto heredity advantages enjoyed by the political aristocracy. This was further advanced by the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835. The term Freeman of the Borough became no longer relevant with regard to inherited political advantages. The reforms of the 1830s were led in Parliament by Lord Grey and much resisted by Wellington. This website relates the importance of inherited rights and as ‘freedom’ has many facets to its meaning,…

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Guilds

Guilds

Their Strengths and Virtues Guilds in Britain have their origins in the Anglo-Saxon period, I have included some speculations in my notes below. The background to guilds (or gilds) could be likened to writing a history of commerce. However, the guilds did not necessarily begin as trading enterprises. The earliest of ‘gilds’, in their original form, tended to be fraternities with religious leanings. Historically, society was led by a monarchy and or their leading nobles. Merchants and craft artisans among…

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Saint Edmund

Saint Edmund

St Edmund, Martyred King of East Anglia The background of Edmund is somewhat questionable. He is purported to have been born in or around 841 in Nurenberg. It may possibly have been sometime before that. He died (was martyred) in the hands of the Viking Army in November 869. His origins are curious in that he was sought from Saxony where he had been brought up, and was elected to become king following a period of some desperation to find…

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A Civilization of Man

A Civilization of Man

From that prehistoric period of ‘hunter gathering’ and ‘slash and burn’ of the wild forest, man’s progress has been continually developing into a sophisticated environment, possibly dreamt of by the Greek philosophers in the ancient world. We may even regard ‘civilization’ to be the pinnacle of aspiration. Simply considered, those early migrant tribal societies would be seeking life in communal safety. This is a complex subject that has many facets to its understanding. It involves the physical progress, cultural, political…

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Charity

Charity

Government guidance to the Law in England and Wales: What the law says a charity is – To be a charity, your organisation must satisfy the definition of a charity in the Charities Act. The Charities Act says that a ‘charity’ is an institution which. Is established for charitable purposes only – see below (1) and Is subject to the control of the High Court’s charity law jurisdiction see further (2) below. Purpose = what it is set up to…

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Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) – Conservatism

Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) – Conservatism

Sir Robert Peel was statesman who can be credited for introducing much social reform into the old established Toryism of the older ruling establishment, more later. Politics in England had been severely shaken by the actions of the violence of the French Revolution. Liberal reactions to political patronage came about in 1832, with the “Representation of the People Act”, now more commonly known as the ‘Great Reform Act’. This immediately disenfranchised 56 boroughs in England and Wales and reduced another…

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Feudalism

Feudalism

Leading to Borough Freedom This social system, based upon the principles of ‘kinship’ began in early English tribal culture. But what is feudalism? It is a system of rule whereby the nobility held land from the Crown in exchange for military service. The vassal nobles were tenants of the king, and their retinue bondsmen and peasants were retained by the noble to work the land and to assist in the military protection of the lord and his lands. I have…

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Manorial Freedom in Suffolk

Manorial Freedom in Suffolk

Framlingham Castle rebuilt by Hugh Bigod 1160s From here Queen Mary was released from detention with assistance from the Burgesses of Sudbury. For which they received Royal chartered Incorporation with full Borough Freedom. Suffolk is an ancient rural county that retains many features relating to its East Anglian historic traditions. From early times there was widespread freedom among the peasantry of East Anglia that did not occur elsewhere in the country. We are mostly familiar with the establishment of ‘Borough…

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Of Winchester and Chichester

Of Winchester and Chichester

King Alfred the Great (r.871-899) There is much in common between these ancient cities and the city of Gloucester. Established by the Romans they subsequently formed important capitals for the mobile court of the kingdom of Wessex. They were primary inclusions in King Alfred the Great’s ‘burghal defences’ against Viking invasions. NB Alfred later made London a part of his kingdoms of Wessex. It later fell into the hands of the Danes. Each of these major towns were modified to…

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